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Techniques and Methods - Applied Physical Chemistry & Molecular Nanotechnology

To characterize physical, chemical and functional properties of nanometarials we apply in our group, as well as in collaborative efforts with other groups, various complementary techniques and methods:

Spectroscopy Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopy (XPS/UPS and AES); Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (NEXAFS); Raman Spectroscopy; Polarisation Modulation Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS); UV-Vis Spectroscopy; Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS)

Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM); Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM in HV/UHV); Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM); Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM); Methods of Optical Microscopy; Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM)

Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED); X-ray Diffraction; X-ray Reflectivity and Grazing Incidence Diffraction (XR/GIXD)

Extreme UV Interference Lithography (EUV-IL); Electron Beam Lithography (EBL); Photolithography; Micro Contact Printing (µCP)


Preparation of Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs), Free-Standing Supramolecular Sheets and Graphene; Chemical and Physical Vapour Deposition (CVD/PVD); Microfabrication in Clean Room

Other Methods Electrical Transport Measurements; Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements (SPR)

Multiprobe Lab
the multiprobe lab

Ultra high vacuum (UHV) Multiprobe System (ScientaOmicron) for analysis of structural, chemical and electronic properties of nanomaterials and sample preparation:

  • operating temperature range 50 – 1300 K
  • sample preparation by PVD and CVD techniques, Ar+ sputtering
  • photoelectron spectroscopy including monochromatic and non-monochromatic XPS (Al Kα, Mg Kα), UPS (e.g., He I), chemical mapping and depth profiling
  • scanning probe techniques including variable temperature AFM and STM
  • low energy electron diffraction (LEED)

Nanosensor lab
the multiprobe lab

High vacuum (HV) and ambient probe stations (Lakeshore and Signatone) for analysis of electrical properties of nanomaterials and devices:

  • Cryogenic vacuum probe station, 4 – 450 K (LakeShore Cryotronics TTPX) for (opto-) electrical characterization in vacuum
  • Precision LCR meter, 20 Hz - 2 MHz (Keysight E4980A)
  • Precision sourcemeters, 100 nA - 200 V and 1 fA - 10 A (Keithley 2634B)
  • Perestalitic pump (Spetec Perimax)
  • Sampling oscilloscope (GwInstek GDS-1052-U)
  • Light sources (Thorlabs DC4104 365 nm and 455 nm)

Microscopy lab
the multiprobe lab

Optical Microscopy (Zeiss), Atomic Force Microscopy (NT MDT):

  • AFM (contact + non-contact) / Lateral Force Microscopy / Phase Imaging/ Force Modulation/ Lithography: AFM (Force)
  • STM/ Magnetic Force Microscopy/ Electrostatic Force Microscopy/ Scanning Capacitance Microscopy/ Kelvin Probe Microscopy
  • Different Measurement modes (air/inert gas atmosphere/liquids)

Chemistry lab
the multiprobe lab

Sample preparation and functionalization of 2D materials under ambient and inert conditions:

  • Self-assembled monolayer preparation
  • Chemical synthesis of target molecules
  • Millipore water purification system
  • Schlenk technique
  • Ar, O2, N2 supply

Lab for Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
the multiprobe lab

Sample preparation and functionalization of 2D materials under ambient and inert conditions:

  • Large scale growth of graphene monolayers on metal substrates;
  • CVD reactor for growth of MoS2, WS2, etc.
  • Glovebox Ecolab Star M.Braun

Microfabrication lab
the multiprobe lab

  • CO2 critical point dryer
  • Spin coater
  • H+, O+ plasma etching
  • Schlenk technique
  • Ar, O2, N2 supply

Electron-beam reactor and lithography Lab
the multiprobe lab

Electron beam reactor and Autosorb 1

  • Low Energy Electron (1-500 eV) irradiation of macroscopic samples (up to 4x4 cm2) in High-Vacuum (10-8 mbar)
  • Low Energy Electron Beam Lithography with stencil masks
  • Automated gas sorption analyzer