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Techniques and Methods - Applied Physical Chemistry & Molecular Nanotechnology

To characterize physical, chemical and functional properties of nanometarials we apply in our group, as well as in collaborative efforts with other groups, various complementary techniques and methods:

Spectroscopy Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopy (XPS/UPS and AES); Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (NEXAFS); Raman Spectroscopy; Polarisation Modulation Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS); UV-Vis Spectroscopy; Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS)

Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM); Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM in HV/UHV); Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM); Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM); Methods of Optical Microscopy; Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM)

Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED); X-ray Diffraction; X-ray Reflectivity and Grazing Incidence Diffraction (XR/GIXD)

Extreme UV Interference Lithography (EUV-IL); Electron Beam Lithography (EBL); Photolithography; Micro Contact Printing (µCP)


Preparation of Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs), Free-Standing Supramolecular Sheets and Graphene; Chemical and Physical Vapour Deposition (CVD/PVD); Microfabrication in Clean Room

Other Methods Electrical Transport Measurements; Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements (SPR); Mass Spectrometer for residual gas analysis

Multiprobe Lab
the multiprobe lab

Ultra high vacuum (UHV) Multiprobe System (ScientaOmicron) for analysis of structural, chemical and electronic properties of nanomaterials and sample preparation:

  • operating temperature range 50 – 1300 K
  • sample preparation by PVD and CVD techniques, Ar+ sputtering
  • photoelectron spectroscopy including monochromatic and non-monochromatic XPS (Al Kα, Mg Kα), UPS (e.g., He I), chemical mapping and depth profiling
  • scanning probe techniques including variable temperature AFM and STM
  • low energy electron diffraction (LEED)

Nanosensor lab
the multiprobe lab

High vacuum (HV) and ambient probe stations (Lakeshore and Signatone) for analysis of electrical properties of nanomaterials and devices:

  • Cryogenic vacuum probe station, 4 – 450 K (LakeShore Cryotronics TTPX) for (opto-) electrical characterization in vacuum
  • Precision LCR meter, 20 Hz - 2 MHz (Keysight E4980A)
  • Precision sourcemeters, 100 nA - 200 V and 1 fA - 10 A (Keithley 2634B)
  • Perestalitic pump (Spetec Perimax)
  • Sampling oscilloscope (GwInstek GDS-1052-U)
  • Light sources (Thorlabs DC4104 365 nm and 455 nm)

Microscopy lab
the multiprobe lab

Optical Microscopy (Zeiss), Atomic Force Microscopy (NT MDT):

  • AFM (contact + non-contact) / Lateral Force Microscopy / Phase Imaging/ Force Modulation/ Lithography: AFM (Force)
  • STM/ Magnetic Force Microscopy/ Electrostatic Force Microscopy/ Scanning Capacitance Microscopy/ Kelvin Probe Microscopy
  • Different Measurement modes (air/inert gas atmosphere/liquids)

Chemistry lab
the multiprobe lab

Sample preparation and functionalization of 2D materials under ambient and inert conditions:

  • Self-assembled monolayer preparation
  • Chemical synthesis of target molecules
  • Millipore water purification system
  • Schlenk technique
  • Ar, O2, N2 supply

Lab for Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
the multiprobe lab

Sample preparation and functionalization of 2D materials under ambient and inert conditions:

  • Large scale growth of graphene monolayers on metal substrates;
  • CVD reactor for growth of MoS2, WS2, etc.
  • Glovebox Ecolab Star M.Braun

Microfabrication lab
the multiprobe lab

  • CO2 critical point dryer
  • Spin coater
  • H+, O+ plasma etching
  • Schlenk technique
  • Ar, O2, N2 supply

Mass Spectrometer, electron-beam reactor and lithography Lab
the multiprobe lab

Electron beam reactor, Mass Spectrometer for residual gas analysis and Autosorb 1

  • Low Energy Electron (1-500 eV) irradiation of macroscopic samples (up to 4x4 cm2) in High-Vacuum (10-8 mbar)
  • Low Energy Electron Beam Lithography with stencil masks
  • Hiden Analytical quadrupole mass analyser for masses 1 - 300 amu
  • High sensitivity up to 10-14 mbar
  • 7 decades continuous log scale
  • Ability to detect external ion flow
  • Automated gas sorption analyzer